Science

What is a Satellite? What is the Uses of Satellite?

All the information about Satellite is mentioned in today's article. I hope you will find all the information related to this easily.

What is Satellite and the Uses of Satellite: We are currently living in a revolutionary age of information and technology. Thanks to the relentless efforts of scientists and the satellites they have created, we can now sit on one end of the earth and know the news of any other end in the blink of an eye. These would never have been possible without satellites. Most of the electrical things we use in our daily lives are powered by satellites. Our daily activities are impossible without satellites. বাংলায় পড়ুন 

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In today’s article we will learn what a satellite is and how a satellite works. We will provide you with detailed information about Satellite from beginning to end through this discussion. If you are interested in this topic, you can read this article carefully.

You can easily get detailed information about Satellite from this complete discussion.

What is a Satellite and Introduction to Satellite

The term satellite was first used in astronomy by Johannes Kepler in 1610. He first used the term in his essay to refer to the moons orbiting Jupiter. Galileo Galilei first saw the moon with his own telescope.

Why the Sky Looks Black Before the Rain?

Satellite stands to follow when translating a Latin word into Bengali. When an object follows or revolves around someone, it is called a satellite.

Satellite-6

By definition we see the moon as a satellite because it revolves around the center of the earth. Why not a satellite of the earth revolves around the center of the earth’s sun. The Milky Way galaxy revolves around the center of the sun. That means the sun is a satellite here. These are natural satellites.

Funding NASA Scientists, Where does it come from?

The term satellite was first used in 1936 to describe a man-made device orbiting the earth, and was scientifically adopted in 1957. For the first time in the history of human civilization, Russia sent artificial satellites into space. Whose name was Sputnik 1. The following year, in 1958, the United States launched their first satellite, Explorer 1K.

Satellite-5

Types of Satellites

Through the above discussion we learned about the identity of the satellite. From that discussion we came to the idea that satellites are artificial and natural. Since we will only discuss artificial satellites in today’s discussion, the types of artificial satellites are mentioned in this section.

There are three types of satellites based on location.

  • LEO (low Earth Orbit)
  • MEO (Medium Earth Orbit)
  • GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit)

LEO (low Earth Orbit)

These satellites are located 18-2000 kilometers above the earth’s surface. The main function of satellites is to orbit the earth from their own orbit. Located in orbit at the International Space Station. These satellites are mainly used for telecommunication and internet related work. Satellite-4

MEO (Medium Earth Orbit)

The satellites are located 20,000 kilometers above the earth’s surface. Originally, GPS satellites were sent into orbit for navigation and military operations. Satellites in this orbit usually have very slow speeds and require a lot of energy to transmit them.

GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit)

The GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) satellites are located 35,000 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. These satellites are commonly used for radio and TV app transmission work. In this orbit the satellites have their antennas in a fixed position.

On the basis of work, the satellite is further divided into six parts. Which are

  • Weather Satellite
  • Communication Satellite
  • Geostationary Satellite
  • Navigation Satellite
  • Earth observation satellite
  • Military satellite

Use and Necessity of Satellite

We know what a satellite is and the types of satellites. In this part of the discussion we will learn in detail about the use of Satellite and the requirements of Satellite.

Without satellites we would not be able to use all the current technology so easily. We can easily send a data from Bangladesh to America via satellite. This would not have been possible without the satellite.

Many people think that if you can communicate by installing a tower or by submarine cable then what is the need of satellite. Satellite-3

But your idea is completely wrong. What do you do when you are in a position where you cannot communicate with a tower? Or suppose you are in the Amazon forest?

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At that moment you can easily communicate with everyone via satellite phone. The Google Maps we use, Google Maps, are powered by Satellite. Google Maps could not be used without satellite.

There is a possibility of data loss if communication is done through submarine cable without satellite. In this case the satellite acts as a bridge between the two places. If you open the data through satellite, there is no possibility of data loss.

How is the Satellite Launched?

We are very interested to know how the satellite is launched. There are certain spacecraft used to send satellites into orbit. These are called launch devices and are used to launch various satellites into space. The most important thing when filling a satellite is to maintain the gravitational acceleration and the balance of the spacecraft. We know that gravitational acceleration will continue to pull our launcher towards the center of the earth. This gravitational acceleration must be exceeded during satellite launch.

স্যাটেলাইট-2

Satellites are launched into space using two types of launchers. One of which is a depreciable rocket and a space shuttle. The wasted rockets are destroyed automatically after sending satellites into space. On the other hand, space shuttles can be used repeatedly for the same purpose. The speed of a launchable rocket depends on the altitude. In low altitude orbits it has a velocity of 7.8 km / s whereas in high altitude orbits it has a direction of 3.1 km / s.

First Satellite of Different Countries

Country Year Rocket Name Satellite Name
Soviet Union 1957 Sputnik-PS (Rocket) Sputnik-1
United States 1958 Juno-1  Explorer-1
France 1965 Diamante East. RIX
Japan 1970 Lambda-4S (Rocket)  Osumi
China 1970 Long March-1 Dong Fang Hong-1
United Kingdom 1971 Black Arrow  Prospero X-3
India 1980 Satellite Lunch Vehicle Rohini
Israel 1988 Shavit  OFEC-1
Russia 1992 Soyuz-U Cosmos-2165
Ukraine 1992 Cyclone-3  Strella
Iran 2009 Safir-2  Omid
Bangladesh 2018 Falcon 9  Bangabandhu-1

Calculation of Distance and Velocity of Satellite

The distance and velocity calculations of the satellite are given below.

Velocity :

Fc = Centrifugal force
Fe = Centripetal force

Now,
Fc = Fe
or, mv^2/(R+h)= mg
or, g = v^2/(R+h)
or, GM/(R+h)^2 = v^2/(R+h)
or, v = sqrt (GM/R+h)

Now, G = Gravitational constant = 6.67 * 10^-11
M = Mass of earth = 6 * 10^24 kg
R = radius of earth = 6400 km
h = height from earth surface = 35000 km
So, Velocity of satellite = 3.075 * 10^3 m/s

Distance :

v = sqrt GM/(R+h)
or, v^2 = GM/(R+h)
or, h = GM / v^2 – R

Now, G = Gravitational constant = 6.67 * 10^-11
M = Mass of earth = 6 * 10^24 kg
R = radius of earth = 6400 km
v = Velocity of satellite = 3.075 * 10^3 m/s
so, h = 35000 km

Satellites are Rotating, so why Its not Fall to Earth?

Many times this question comes to our mind. Satellites are always in a state of rotation around the center of the earth. Then why it is not falling to the ground. The answer to this question is as simple as it is simple.

We all know about centrifugal and centripetal force. When an object revolves around the center of another object, a centrifugal force acts, it is called centrifugal force. Satellite-1

On the other hand, the force that the rotating object feels in the opposite direction to the collision of the planets and stars is called centripetal force.

Now if the centripetal force and the centripetal force are equal then the object continues to rotate along the same axis without falling in any direction. This centripetal and centripetal force of a satellite is equal so that it revolves around the earth without falling to the ground or splashing into space.

This can be well explained with a simple example. Tie an object to the end of a thread and hold it in the corner with the center of the finger. So what you see is that a centrifugal force is created on the object due to the tension of the yarn. The object, on the other hand, wants to bounce off the outside so that it has a centripetal force. Because the two balls are equal here, the object does not bounce outwards but rotates around the center.

For the same reason, the satellite does not fall out of its orbit or crash into the earth’s surface.

How does a Rotating Satellite Receive a Signal?

This question comes to our mind many times. Satellites are always in a state of rotation around the center of the earth. So how do satellites receive the signals that are sent from the earth’s surface. This answer is very simple. Satellite-9

We know that the ecliptic motion of the earth is about 24 hours. That means the earth rotates once every 24 hours. When the satellite is sent, it is adjusted to the speed of the earth. That is, the satellite rotates at exactly the speed at which the earth rotates. If the earth rotates once in 24 hours, the satellite orbits the earth once in 24 hours. That is why satellites seem to be stationary from Earth. So there is no problem in receiving or transmitting any signal sent from the earth’s surface.

Sometimes this equilibrium is lost when the satellite recovers through its own gaseous plant.

Satellite Power Supply Process

Each satellite has 32,000 mounted to supply power to the satellite and a cadmium battery is kept as a backup. These are the ones that provide constant power to the satellite.

In some cases, nuclear sources are used to supply power to satellites. The satellite is connected to an on-board computer to control and monitor various systems, including the power of the satellite. Satellite-8

This computer connected to the satellite controls its system.

Structure of the Satellite. What Devices does a Satellite Consist of?

Satellites are made up of many objects. The main driving force of a satellite is the Satellite Transponder. This object consists of the following devices

  • Band Pass Filter
  • Low Noise Amplifier
  • Frequency Translator
  • Micro Shift Oscillator
  • Radio Frequency Mixer
  • Power Amplifier
  • High Resoluted Camera
  • Processor with High Clock Speed
  • High Power Transmitting Antenna
  • High Power Receiving Antenna

Alternative Technology of Satellite. Which has More Advantages?

The alternative technology of the satellite is submarine cable. This submarine cable is laid under the sea. Optical fiber allows data to be transmitted from one country to another before the blink of an eye. In terms of benefits, submarines alone have more advantages than satellites. These reasons are-

Optical-fiber

  • Bandwidth is too much
  • The data reaches the speed of light
  • Data is transmitted using lasers or LEDs
  • Data loss is low
  • There is no electromagnetic interference

However, it is almost impossible to run without a satellite because it is not possible to install a submarine cable landing station at any time. Each country is assigned a specific bandwidth from the International Telephone Organization. So the satellite has been kept as a backup along with the submarine cable.

What are Uplink and Downlink?

Uplink: The data link / channel through which the data from the ground station antenna reaches the receiving antenna of the satellite is called uplink.

Downlink: The channel / data link that reaches the ground station’s antenna through the trans meeting antenna of the satellite is called downlink.

Satellite-7

Uplink and downlink are opposite to each other.

Total number of Satellites in Different Countries

In 1957, Russia launched the first satellite into space. The following year, the United States became the second country in the world to launch a satellite into space. Bangladesh is the 57th country to send a satellite. Thousands of satellites from different countries are constantly rotating around the center of the earth.

  • United States has 1,616 satellites
  • Soviet Russia has 1,504 satellites
  • China has 298 satellites
  • Japan has 172 satellites
  • India has 88 satellites
  • France has 68 satellites
  • Britain has 42 satellites
  • South Korea has 24 satellites
  • Spain has 23 satellites
  • Turkey has 14 satellites
  • Saudi Arabia has 13 satellites
  • Pakistan has 3 satellites
  • Bangladesh has one satellite

In addition, numerous satellites of various international organizations are constantly revolving around the earth. We hope you enjoy the article. Visit our link below to get more beautiful posts or information about science. If you like the post, be sure to share it with your friends. Thanks for staying with us.

Akash

I am Akash Mahmud and I am a Graduate. I love to write articles. I am friendly and helpful. You will get your required information here. Keep Supporting Us.

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